Compared to the Paleolithic age and Old Stone Age, Neolithic Age humans could formulate utensils and needles form the curved animal horns and bones

She comfortably accepts the narrator’s empty answer and finally dies a pitiable death. Many ironical bit in the pathetic death of Luzhen is that it arouses the appetite of the narrator. Although he had did not offer a satisfactory answer to the woman, he yearns to take sharkfin soup to have the peace of mind and acquire stomach satisfaction. Meaning is demanded where food is anticipated; although the words offered are meaningless to the narrator, food can fill his blankness (Wang 2).

There exists a pack of symbols between the narrator and Luzhen concerning the duality of oral functions: speaking and eating. Although Luzhen is a beggar, she does not accept mere food. Rather, she attempts to find answers to her life puzzlement. Nevertheless, her effort to speak and get some response is ruined by the narrator who offers her neither anything thinkable nor edible. According to the Freudian theory, language is identical to the praxis of eating swapped to the speaking semiosis. This claim means that both eating and speaking are primarily communicative acts through which man makes the world suited to existence. As it can be drawn using this short story, the reader can already perceive the short-circuiting effect of the oral duality. Whereas Luzhen dies a mute woman, her fellow townsfolk celebrate their New Year’s Eve feast in clamor. This death suggests that she actually is the sacrifice of the occasion served in honor of the deities and ancestors in a cannibalistic celebration.

Food as Symbols of Female Empowerment

Just as the typical starving women in the modern Chinese literature, an extensive line of women follow Luzhen. For example, Rou Shi’s short story, “A Slave’s Mother,” tells of a man who sells his hungry wife as a surrogate mother to save his family from dying of hunger. In Wang Jingzhi’s “Human Flesh,” some of hungry men literally chop a starving woman into portions and eats her. Still in another incident, Wu Zuxiang’s “The Fan Village” tells of another hungry woman who commits matricide because her mother declines from lending her money to survive famine. Finally, in Xiao Hong’s “The Field of Life and Death,” a story is told of hungry women who go behind their men and oppose the Japanese oppression. This gallery of hungry women plainly shows the extra function of food: it is a sign of political, economic, and social starvations (Wang 3).

For Lu Xun while the other authors, food is used as symbols of powerful tokens that mark the melancholy of powerlessness within a cannibalistic society. The enthusiasm of those authors’ statements, on behalf of the peasant hungry women, appeals to the reader to judge issues beyond the superficial typology of social cannibalism and injustice.500 word essay about myself As Luzhen’s case indicates, some aspects of female subjectivity are manifested in the Chinese modern literature. Firstly, these are the consumptive and enunciative capabilities of women in pursuing economic and social selfhood. Secondly, it is the deployment of gender and biological resources in both the private and public spheres. Thirdly, it is the general assumption that hunger and femininity are possibly male fantasies of the material and metaphysical misery that overwhelmed modern China.

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During the Neolithic Age, different kinds of animals were tamed, which showed their relationship with the humans just as in the Old Stone Age. For example, first, dogs were wolves that hunted the humans at their campgrounds. They came to realize later that the wolf’s puppies could be tamed and coached to hunt other wild animals. The dog’s strains that grew eventually showed skills in controlling herds like sheep. In addition, the first domesticated animals were sheep, goats and pigs in the Middle East around 8500 and 700 B.C. (Lavin, 2011). Nonetheless, the horned wild cattle, which could defend themselves and could run faster, were not tamed. To the contrary, some archeologists argue that domesticating animals was in the beginning motivated by spiritual views rather than the wish for clothing and a new source of food, symbolized by the central place of the bull and cattle in the sacrificial cults of the many Stone Age people. The animals that were domesticated provide Neolithic Age humans with milk and meat abundant with protein. Unlike in the Old Stone Age, individuals from Neolithic Age could draft primitive boots, shelters, containers and cloths from the animal skin and wool that provided the materials.

Compared to the Paleolithic age and Old Stone Age, Neolithic Age humans could formulate utensils and needles form the curved animal horns and bones. They could not use much of animal power in farming, travel or transportation since at that period, they failed to have the idea of wheels or plows; they had developed the idea of using the animal horns as utensils, while the Bronze Age people developed the idea around 4000-3500 B.C. Nonetheless, there was evidence showing that people in the North areas used the tamed reindeer to pull simple sledges and those who have been in the South transported goods using camels. In addition, they could get manure from the domesticated herd animals to make the soil fertile that improved yield of crops, which was sooner or later becoming the most important of their livelihood. At the same time, the much work involved farming as well as its concept of no influence on the people’s standard of living caused many groups to continue making use of their long tested survival strategies (Lavin, 2011).essay help for free Inactive agriculture existed in groups of migrant cultivators, fishers, hunters and gatherers. The shifting cultivators, hunters and gatherers checked out in different places even though humans depended on the inactive agriculture as their source of food. Pastoralists, on the other hand, who have been influenced by the domestication of animals had proven to be the strongest rival of inactive agriculture. It thrives through the semi-arid areas including the Savanna Zone, South East of Africa, which are incapable of supporting large populations.

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The nomadic has produced resilient and independent individuals well knowledgeable in military skills for their survival and challenges the dense populated framing societies. Powerful kingdoms have been demolished by the horse riding nomads and laid the bases for huge empires. Similarly, pastoralists of the South and East Africa have developed some of the most redoubtable pre-developed military systems. Nonetheless, the nomadic folks have been reduced by the industrial revolution, and their cultures imperiled by the steady impact of the inactive people. Even though agriculture failed to dominate basic needs for human being societies in the New Stone Age revolution era, those who learned it increased their livelihoods, survived and passed their proficiencies of production to others. The cultivation of fibers such as cotton that were used to make cloths spread from Egypt to people along the River Nile, North African coast and South of the savanna desert.  Similarly, agriculture grew independently in the rain forest zone of Africa and mainly was based on root crops such as cassavas and bananas (Lavin, 2011).

A millet based agriculture organization formulated along the Yellow River basin during the New Stone Age period in China. It spread eastward towards North China and again southward to the Yangtze basin. Correspondingly, a rice based agriculture revolution began in South East Asia time before 500 B.C, and gradually spread into India to the lands of South East Asia. Nonetheless, the Americas maize and sweet potato based farmer organizations developed in Peru. These and other related crops had spread through the western Hemisphere, form Amazon region towards the North Atlantic coast (Lavin, 2011). Similarly, altering patterns of farm production were distributed on all the populated continents except from Australia where there were no suitable temperatures. The two main hypotheses on how the New Stone Age cultures spread across Europe include, first, proposes the transmission of culture as the main factor meaning that the new systems, technologies and survival strategies were acquired from the neighboring groups. The second suggests that there was clearly expansion from the farm operators’ populations near Europe, substituting most of the New Stone Age hunters and gatherers. The replacement model is believed as population expansion that restrained mixture with the residents.

A change in the slaughter pattern of the goats could be quantified at Aknashen. It was noticed that there was clearly an increase in the number of people between the ages of 2-4 years, which could be interpreted as intensive development of the secondary products and more so milk. It evidently shows that this exploitation was carried together with cattle. At the same time, hunting appeared to be secondary at Aknashen and it was realized that such intensification of those activities existed in the beginning (Lavin, 2011). In addition, hunting mainly concerned the large animals like wild horses and deer. Although hunting seemed very dangerous since the animals were wild and hard to tame, the risks were reflected at the large amount of meat and different products that they would produce from such large animals. For example, they would get horns for utensils, bones to make weapons and skin for cloths and primitive boots. Although such activities as gathering and hunting have very low evidence at some places, a few proofs show that deer and bears were the most frequently hunted at Aknashen. In comparison of the two places, Aratashen and Aknashen, there are many similarities since both sides had a prepotency of goats that they exploited for their meat and cattle. In both cases, the number of cattle increased relatively to the proportion to that of goats. The wild kinds of animals exploited from the mountains often remained small.




In Abu Dhabi’s Western Region in the United Arab Emirates, a new site was discovered consisting of more than sixty camel skeletons. Kiel Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory in Germany dated the camel bone samples from the site from the late fifth millennium B.C. The site is at the southeast of the Baynunah plantation place near Ruwais-Habshan pipeline. The camel bones had spread over an area of about 100 square meters (McCarter, 2012). Their analysis of the bones suggests that they are the remains of the wild camels just as Archaeological findings of the bones that included a flint arrowhead finely made. This new site provides a valuable chance to examine an extremely large sample of wild camel bone during the New Stone Age history of South Eastern Arabia same as South East of Baynunah. This site will provide future detailed research and show the interaction between the communities’ diverse cultures of the Neolithic Age while the wild camel.

A number of evidence provided a short glance into the cultures of Bedouin and South East Arabia, their lifestyle and economy that is largely established on textual explanations of the early travelers through the region. Correspondingly, a Series of late Islamic period campsite in the desert of Abu Dhabi evidenced by new surveys and executions conveyed in May 2008 by the joint team form Kanazawa University in Japan and Historic Environment Department from Abudhabi. Similarly, the Tawi Beduwa Shwaiba, which is found about 34 km South from Al Wathba and Mari, which is also found about 40 km south from Al Wathba, have been analyzed (McCarter, 2012). These places signify irregular Campgroup’s that were occupied in the movement by Bedouin on their seasonal journeys between coastal region and Abu Dhabi on a significantly known route. At the same time, they could find fresh water sources route to and from the desert oasis area of Liwa.

The recent research came upon substantial amounts of fish, birds and mammal bones at these early composites. In addition, they found refuse such as pottery, glass and occasional metal pieces. This is due to the peoples developed skills and knowledge in advance thinking since they could form a number of metal pieces and glass influenced by the life they lived around that period. The mammal and bird bones also resembles that the individuals were not only dependent on goats and cattle or agricultural products. These people were exploring other kinds of food unlike in the Paleolithic and Old Stone Age periods which humans only depended on agricultural products and hunting as their source of food (McCarter, 2012). The analysis from these web sites concerning pottery implies that they mostly date 18th to around 20th centuries AD. Nonetheless, the rate while the types of fish that were traded and consumed by the residents of Bedouin, the significance of the fundamental interaction between the coastal areas, as well as the interior of the desert show how trade intercultural activities occurred at the coast during that period.

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Order Essay using this Title : deaf sports, socialization agent, integration, the Comité International des Sports des Sourds, Deaflympics Plagiarism Free Prices From only 12,99$/page

Sport for the Deaf is an incentive for fight, self-assertion of personality, and way of social rehabilitation. Participating in the same sports and playing by similar rules as regular competitors, athletes with hearing impairment achieve the same results and often perform even better than healthy athletes do. This is evidenced by hundreds of examples. Any deaf person or the one with a hearing disorder can take part in deaf sports. Sporting activities are performed at different levels: school or college, amateur or professional.

The paper aims to review basic sports available for the Deaf athletes, providing key similarities and differences. It seems equally important to investigate the place of sport in lives of people with hearing impairment, its role in socialization, interaction, communication, and integration of different communities. The list of official and unofficial sporting events and organizations are provided to assess the current development of the issue.

Deaf Sports as a Means of Socialization

Sport as a socialization agent has a positive impact on the formation of a physically and spiritually healthy personality. According to researchers, sport should be given more attention in the context of its socializing function. This is especially true for deaf young ones, who only start their lives in a social environment. Nonetheless, there are many factors why young ones do not pay enough attention to physical exercise, among them are: the course load at school and therefore lack of time, low sports motivation, lack of sports groups in the community, among others.

The development of sport and strengthening of its position as an agent of the young generation socialization are among the most important areas of improvement of the society. It really is known that physical activity promotes a healthy lifestyle, charges people with energy, and requires refusal from harmful habits (alcohol drinking, smoking, among others). In short, sport disciplines a person, creates willpower, motivation, and dedication. It is a key to a healthy human mental activity, vitality, and zest for life. The process of socialization through sport is different from the means of socialization in the family or school, because it forms a positive focus on maintaining, securing, and transmitting certain social values and attitudes vital for today’s youth culture of self-preservation behavior.

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The integration of the Deaf into hearing communities is seen as one of the main motivations of Deaf sports. It is extremely important in the process of interaction of those two different societies never to take the Deaf as people with disabilities, never to feel sorry for them, and not to offer handouts, but to simply help and treat them as equals. Nonetheless, the experience evidences not in favor of full integration, which has not been achieved after years of trying. Full integration is not possible because language is a connecting factor for community and culture. Sign language is a kind of “foreign language” for hearing society, which is comprehended by a very small percentage of people. The same applies to sports. Members of teams consisting of the hearing while the Deaf face difficulties in interaction, and thus it really is hard for them to produce a common strategy for victory.

The problem of socialization can be also seen from another perspective. Sports promote communication within the Deaf community. For non-professional adult athletes, it is a solution to relax and unwind after a working day spent in the hearing society. Sports allow them to safely interact with each other, to understand and to be comprehended. To this end, there are organized activities such as volleyball, basketball, fast-pitch, slow-pitch, etc. (Nomeland & Nomeland, 2011, p. 83-84). The set of activities is affected by the geographical location of the community, available funds and facilities.

It can be concluded that sport as a means of integration of the Deaf and hearing society is not universal. Today, there are a number of problems the perfect solution is of which is not yet possible. Nonetheless, physical exercise and teamwork of the Deaf, their socialization and communication increase with the development of sporting activities. Particularly important for the formation of a viable and socially active young generation is such quality as mobility, which is acquired with the help of a sporting activity. This term includes time management and self-discipline, a power to quickly assess the situation and make an appropriate decision, concentration on the goal, a power to safely survive a failure and find the way out of difficult situation. These characteristics can help youngster in learning and communicating with classmates. For adults, they ensure the development of leadership qualities and professional growth.


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    Organizational Issues of Deaf Sports

    Qualification standards and rules of games usually remain unchanged. Nonetheless, taking into account the specifics of the deaf people, certain amendments had to be made. These people were obviously associated with the introduction of some visual signs instead of acoustic ones (starter’s guns or referee whistles). Ammons (2008) specifies the use of lights for different sports such as basketball, swimming, water polo, and athletics (p. 4).

    Despite the fact that speaking about the sport, people usually reference athletes as active participants of a sporting activity, it’s important to remember about the audience. Spectators assess the course and outcome of the game and support the athletes. Competitors themselves inspire their audience serving as a spirit-stirring example for new achievements. It is common to see hearing people watching deaf sports because such activities are spectacular for everyone. Infrastructure of such sports includes different visualization means, which are crucial for both deaf athletes and spectators.

    World Organizations

    Since 1924, a highly organized and isolated system of deaf sports successfully operates in the world under the supervision of the Comité International des Sports des Sourds (CISS). It was deployed beyond your Paralympic Movement and was established long before it (Nomeland & Nomeland, 2011, p. 84).

    Nowadays, the CISS is acknowledged by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The CISS includes national legally independent sports organizations of the Deaf operating in numerous countries, united into four regional confederations (European, Pan-American, African, and Asia-Pacific) (Ammons, 2008, p. 5). For example, the American Athletic Association of the Deaf operates in the USA (Nomeland & Nomeland, 2011, p. 83). Of course, such organizations require the help of volunteers and hearing people to establish appropriate business connections, officiate, and interpret.

    Every four years, under the leadership of CISS, a championship of the world takes place. The European Deaf Sports Organization (EDSO) conducts European championships. The program of championships features lawn bowls, golf, and martial arts, which are not a part of Deaflympics (Ammons, 2008, p. 5). There, deaf athletes break world records and set personal ones. This evidences their passion and enthusiasm in sports.


    Deaflympics are held every four years, embracing summer and winter sports performed by the same rules that were adopted for healthy athletes by the relevant international sports federations (FIFA, FIBA etc.) (Ammons, 2008, p. 6). The history of the games can be traced back to 1924, when they were held in Paris under the name the International Silent Games. Back then, the event included 124 athletes from nine countries (Ammons, 2008, p. 3). The initial two Americans took part in the Games in 1935 (Nomeland & Nomeland, 2011, p. 84). Nowadays, the procedure of determination of Deaflympics’ host is similar to Olympics. The Games themselves are organized by the national Deaf Sport organization, after successfully bidding for them (Ammons, 2008, p. 5).

    Despite the common perception of Deaflympics as an activity similar to Paralympics, there are numerous principle differences. Participation of athletes in the Paralympics varies according to the degree of their disability. Therefore, the Paralympic competitions are held in special conditions. The participation in Deaflympics is allowed for the athletes with a hearing loss of at least 55 decibels in the better ear (Ammons, 2008, p. 10). In this respect, they compete almost on equal terms with the Olympians.

    Like in Olympics, the program of Deaflympics includes a large variety of summer and cold weather disciplines. They all can be divided into individual and team activities. In summer, individual athletes compete in athletics, badminton, bowling, swimming, freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling, orienteering, table tennis, tennis, shooting, judo, karate, taekwondo, and cycling. The teamwork competition can be seen in water polo, handball, soccer, men’s and women’s basketball, volleyball, and beach volleyball. The set of cold weather disciplines is smaller but not less spectacular. It includes skiing, hockey, snowboarding, and curling.

    It is worth noting that some deaf athletes took part in and even won Olympics, competing on equal terms with hearing rivals. The brightest examples are Americans Jeff Float, who won gold medal in swimming in 1984, and Tamika Catchings, who won gold medal in basketball in 2008. Another prominent athlete is Terrence Parkin from South Africa – a Swimming Silver Medalist of 2000 (Ammons, 2008, p. 7).

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    Historical Background of the Transition from Socialism to Capitalism in Russia

    Before the Socialist Revolution of 1917, Russia was the fifth largest economy on earth. Social and political changes led to the formation of the Soviet Union. Sakwa (2013) assumes that during the last years of existence of the Soviet Union, Russian economy experienced numerous difficulties. During the Cold War, its industry produced mainly missiles and tanks that were not widely used in everyday life. In the 1990s, Russia had extraordinary problems with shifting from socialism to capitalism (Sakwa, 2013). Capitalism was a new concept in the country, as well as its transitional period was full of collisions and pitfalls. These people were likely to rebuild economy that stayed in weak conditions.

    Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, the country had a good international status, but in the 1990s, it lost its position in the world (Renza & Thornton, 2012). For many years, it was a crucial world power that existed in opposite to the capitalist world. Nonetheless, everything has changed after 1990, and nobody wanted to help Russia to rebuild its economy on its solution to capitalism. The country has lost its former power and became nobody in the world arena. Moreover, it lost number of territories that were part of the USSR. Fourteen other countries that comprised the Soviet Union before its collapse failed to subscribe to Russian economy anymore. Thus, Russia failed to lose only territories that had rich natural resources and agriculture, but also it lost its workforce. Remarkably, the former Soviet Union used their republics as a source of the food production, oil, and natural gas, but after proclaiming its sovereignty, Russia could not any longer use these recourses. Most weapons were positioned in Ukraine and Belarus, and it was rather expensive to destroy and relocate them.

    Russian transition period from communism to capitalism was accompanied by crime caused by the Russian Mafia that has been influential there until nowadays. Wilson (2015) notes that crime was always present in Russia, even during communism, when criminals created the Russian black market. The Soviet system was corrupted from its very beginning, and it was increased during the transformational period when there were almost no rules. The Soviet system was broken after the collapse of the Soviet Union and Russia was under the influence of organized crime. Its influence was a major factor of what was happening in Russia and has continued until today. This powerful group does not only affect the local economy, but it also influences international investments.

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    Russian Oligarchs

    The oligarchs were a new dimension of white-collar criminals who worked for the government. They bought industries and businesses in Russia. In the Soviet Union, all property was owned by the state – the land, natural resources, plants, etc. When communism begun to transform into capitalism, the state started to sell everything. Nonetheless, ordinary individuals could not buy this property because all purchases were made by government insiders at rock-bottom prices (Pursiainen, 2012). For example, Yukos was a government-owned Oil Company that was privatized by people who had friends in the government and in the bank. When it was going up for sale, individuals took a loan in the bank, and then resold the company for its true value, becoming billionaires immediately. Finally, such a transaction became a huge financial loss to the government.

    The collapse of the Soviet Union created huge opportunities for oligarchs who struggled to defense their wealth. The Russian state still has big problems, trying to manage this part of the population consisting of powerful actors. Chrissikos (2014) assumes that the reason for oligarchy in Russia was a results of its political economy. It was rather problematic for oligarchs to defense their wealth, especially during the first years of independence. Russian people understood the importance of legal institutions that protected property rights, but it was almost impossible to create them. Mafia protection rackets became a normal thing in post-communist Russia. Nonetheless, these people were more a danger when compared to a solution. New Russian businessmen were likely to pay rackets 20 percent of turnover for their protection.

    Potential Problems

    Another problematic issue for Russia was its population that declined through decreasing birth rates and fertility rates. Today, Russian population has declined to 150 million people, and this number is becoming smaller every year (Wilson, 2015). Population decline in Russia was extremely problematic in the transition period. Moreover, low population growth was continuing during the coming years. Many findings suggest that the main reason for Russia’s democratic decline is a lack of health care (Lane, Oding, & Welfens, 2012). During the transition period, health care service became unavailable for many citizens because of its high cost. Therefore, many individuals would not have access to expensive operations or preventive care. Sooner or later, they become alcoholics, trying to forget their troubles, which does not make things better.

    Many findings suggest that after the collapse of the USSR, Russia has lost its spheres of influence in the former Soviet republics and other countries (Chrissikos, 2014). For example, it was desperately trying to keep Central Asia under control because it features a rich abundance of natural resources, such as oil and natural gas. Sakwa (2013) states that they were also courting China with the aim to establish good ties with it. Since 1990, Russia has lost influence over Eastern Europe. Thus, such countries as Poland, Hungary, while the Check Republic joined NATO very quickly, just after they declared their independence in 1991 (Pursiainen, 2012). Therefore, things continued to change rapidly for Russia on its way from communism to capitalism.

    What Distinguishes Russian Capitalism from the Western Capitalism?

    Historically, the establishment of communism was the main event of the 20th century. As a result, a protected fight between communist and capitalist worlds has occurred after the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia. This revolution has changed the Russian direction for a long time. In its intention to transform socialism into capitalism, Russia has overcome many difficulties. Soviet industry was mainly organized at state-owned enterprises, and it was a difficult path of changing these standards and turning state property into private property. One of the main features of socialism in Russia was class-focused approach that encouraged workers to produce a surplus for the government that distributed it.




    In the 1990s, the opposition movement led by Yeltsin (the first Russian President) proclaimed individual freedom, democracy, and economic reforms. Nonetheless, these intentions failed, as contrasted with those dependant on Gorbachev during “perestroika.” Chrissikos (2014) asserts that Yeltsin and his followers, who came to power in 1991, decided to transform Russian socioeconomic system radically and rapidly. His government tended to quickly eliminate the remaining elements of a socialist system and create a capitalist one.